Kant considered the "right" superior to the "good"; to him, the "good" was morally irrelevant. But, the bottom line is the Golden Rule is simply meant for good. Kant was of the opinion that man is his own law autonomy - that is, he binds himself under the law which he himself gives himself.
Thus Kant presents the notion of the hypothetical Kingdom of Ends of which he suggests all people should consider themselves never solely as means but always as ends.
With lying, it would logically contradict the reliability of language. Doctrine of mental reservation Kant asserted that lying, or deception of any kind, would be forbidden under any interpretation and in any circumstance.
Kant himself did not think so in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. By combining this formulation with the first, we learn that a person has perfect duty not to use the humanity of themselves or others merely as a means to some other end.
Kant was of the opinion that man is his own law autonomy - that is, he binds himself under the law which he himself gives himself. Rather, the categorical imperative is an attempt to identify a purely formal and necessarily universally binding rule on all rational agents.
It is not enough that the right conduct be followed, but that one also demands that conduct of oneself. Should you lie and say otherwise as to not hurt her feelings therefore your maxim would be: I treat you with respect because that is how I would like you to treat me.
Hypothetical imperatives are based on some specific end or purpose: But to treat it as a subjective end is to deny the possibility of freedom in general.
This leads to the concept of self-legislation.
If any person desires perfection in themselves Categorical imperative essay others, it would be their moral duty to seek that end for all people equally, so long as that end does not contradict perfect duty.
However, no person can consent to theft, because the presence of consent would mean that the transfer was not a theft. One sees at once that a contradiction in a system of nature whose law would destroy life by means of the very same feeling that acts so as to stimulate the furtherance of life, and hence there could be no existence as a system of nature.
There are two kinds of imperatives: Suicide[ edit ] Kant applied his categorical imperative to the issue of suicide motivated by a sickness of life in The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals,  writing that: The second formulation also leads to the imperfect duty to further the ends of ourselves and others.
It is because morality is determined by pure practical reason, rather than particular empirical or sensuous factors, that morality is universally valid.
This is a contradiction because if it were a universal action, no person would lend money anymore as he knows that he will never be paid back. Now Categorical Imperative on the other hand is driven by reason. Rationality is the key to morality.
This lie results in a contradiction in conception and therefore the lie is in conflict with duty. That which can be determined only by inclination sensible impulse, stimulus would be animal choice arbitrium brutum. The notion of stealing presupposes the existence of private property, but were A universalized, then there could be no private property, and so the proposition has logically negated itself.
A couple examples of categorical imperative. Arendt considered this so "incomprehensible on the face of it" that it confirmed her sense that he wasn't really thinking at all, just mouthing accepted formulae, thereby establishing his banality.
Eichmann acknowledged he did not "live entirely according to it, although I would like to do so. Since even a free person could not possibly have knowledge of their own freedom, we cannot use our failure to find a proof for freedom as evidence for a lack of it. This lie results in a contradiction in conception and therefore the lie is in conflict with duty.
But even though it is possible that a universal law of nature could subsist in accordance with that maxim, still it is impossible to will that such a principle should hold everywhere as a law of nature. However, cruelty to animals deadens the feeling of compassion in man.
The second formulation also leads to the imperfect duty to further the ends of ourselves and others. By combining this formulation with the first, we learn that a person has perfect duty not to use the humanity of themselves or others merely as a means to some other end.
Because the victim could not have consented to the action, it could not be instituted as a universal law of nature, and theft contradicts perfect duty. This moral universalism has come to be seen as the distinctive aspect of Kant's moral philosophy and has had wide social impact in the legal and political concepts of human rights and equality.
Not only that, but cultivating one's talents is a duty to oneself. Now you have to ask if you are willing to make that a universal law and everyone one earth would have to show no sympathy. Unlike in conventional game theory, a superrational player will act as if all other players are superrational too and that a superrational agent will always come up with the same strategy as any other superrational agent when facing the same problem.
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